Featured Work

  1. ​Baskin, L.S., and Cunha, G.R. (2021) Embryology of the Genitourinary. In: Wein, A.J., Kavoussi, L.R., Partin, A.W., and Peters, C.A. (eds) Campbell-Walsh Urology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 305-340. (In Press)
  2. Conley, A.Place, N., Legacki, E., Hammond, G., Cunha, G. R., Drea, Weldele, M., Glickman, S. Spotted hyaenas and the sexual spectrum: reproductive endocrinology and development. (2020) J. Endocrinology 247:27-44.
  3. Cunha, G.R., Li, Y., Cao, M., Derpinghaus, A. and Baskin, L.S. (2020) Ontogeny of estrogen receptors in human male and female fetal reproductive tracts. Differentiation (In Press).
  4. Cunha, G.R., Cao, M., Sinclair, A., Derpinghaus, A. and Baskin, L.S. (2020) Anatomy of the mouse penis and internal prepuce. Differentiation 116:26-37.
  5. Cunha, G.R., Cao, M., Franco, O. and Baskin, L. (2020) A comparison of prostatic development in xenografts of human fetal prostate and human female fetal proximal urethra grown in dihydrotestosterone-treated hosts. Differentiation 115:37-52.
  6. Cunha, G.R. and Baskin, L. (2020) Development of the external genitalia. Differentiation 112:7-9.
  7. Cunha, G.R., Liu, G., Sinclair, A., Cao, M., Glickman, S., Cooke, P.S. and Baskin, L. Androgen-independent events in penile development in humans and animals. Differentiation. 2019; 111:98-114.
  8. Isaacson D, McCreedy D, Calvert M, Shen J, Sinclair A, Cao M, et al. Imaging the developing human external and internal urogenital organs with light sheet fluorescence microscopy. Differentiation. 2019;111:12-21. PubMed PMID: 31634681.
  9. Cunha GR, Sinclair A, Ricke WA, Robboy SJ, Cao M, Baskin LS. Reproductive tract biology: Of mice and men. Differentiation. 2019;110:49-63. PubMed PMID: 31622789.
  10. Cunha GR, Sinclair A, Cao M, Baskin LS. Development of the human prepuce and its innervation. Differentiation. 2019;111:22-40. PubMed PMID: 31654825.
  11. Cunha GR, Liu G, Sinclair A, Cao M, Baskin L. Clitoral development in the mouse and human. Differentiation. 2019;111:79-97. PubMed PMID: 31731099.
  12. Baskin L, Cao M, Sinclair A, Li Y, Overland M, Isaacson D, et al. Androgen and estrogen receptor expression in the developing human penis and clitoris. Differentiation. 2019;111:41-59. PubMed PMID: 31655443. (Supplementary Data)
  13. Robboy, S. J., Cunha, G. R., Kurita, T., Strickland, K. C. Vagina. In: Histology for Pathologists, 5th Edition, S. Mills, ed., Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp. 1047-1058 (2019).
  14. Shen J, Isaacson D, Cao M, Sinclair A, Cunha GR, Baskin L. Immunohistochemical expression analysis of the human fetal lower urogenital tract. Differentiation. 2018;103:100-19. PubMed PMID: 30287094.
  15. Shen J, Cunha GR, Sinclair A, Cao M, Isaacson D, Baskin L. Macroscopic whole-mounts of the developing human fetal urogenital-genital tract: Indifferent stage to male and female differentiation. Differentiation. 2018;103:5-13. PubMed PMID: 30245193.
  16. Liu X, Liu G, Shen J, Yue A, Isaacson D, Sinclair A, et al. Human glans and preputial development. Differentiation. 2018;103:86-99. PubMed PMID: 30245194.
  17. Liu G, Liu X, Shen J, Sinclair A, Baskin L, Cunha GR. Contrasting mechanisms of penile urethral formation in mouse and human. Differentiation. 2018;101:46-64. PubMed PMID: 29859371.
  18. Lindstrom NO, McMahon JA, Guo J, Tran T, Guo Q, Rutledge E, et al. Conserved and Divergent Features of Human and Mouse Kidney Organogenesis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29(3):785-805. PubMed PMID: 29449453.
  19. Lindstrom NO, Guo J, Kim AD, Tran T, Guo Q, De Sena Brandine G, et al. Conserved and Divergent Features of Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Types within the Cortical Nephrogenic Niche of the Human and Mouse Kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29(3):806-24. PubMed PMID: 29449449.
  20. Liaw A, Cunha GR, Shen J, Cao M, Liu G, Sinclair A, et al. Development of the human bladder and ureterovesical junction. Differentiation. 2018;103:66-73. PubMed PMID: 30236462.
  21. Isaacson D, Shen J, Overland M, Li Y, Sinclair A, Cao M, et al. Three-dimensional imaging of the developing human fetal urogenital-genital tract: Indifferent stage to male and female differentiation. Differentiation. 2018;103:14-23. PubMed PMID: 30262218.
  22. Isaacson D, Shen J, McCreedy D, Calvert M, McDevitt T, Cunha G, et al. Lightsheet fluorescence microscopy of branching human fetal kidney. Kidney Int. 2018;93(2):525. PubMed PMID: 29389399.
  23. Cunha GR, Vezina CM, Isaacson D, Ricke WA, Timms BG, Cao M, et al. Development of the human prostate. Differentiation. 2018;103:24-45. PubMed PMID: 30224091.
  24. Cunha GR, Robboy SJ, Kurita T, Isaacson D, Shen J, Cao M, et al. Development of the human female reproductive tract. Differentiation. 2018;103:46-65. PubMed PMID: 30236463.
  25. Cunha GR, Kurita T, Cao M, Shen J, Cooke PS, Robboy SJ, et al. Tissue interactions and estrogenic response during human female fetal reproductive tract development. Differentiation. 2018;101:39-45. PubMed PMID: 29684808.
  26. Cunha GR, Baskin L. Development of human male and female urogenital tracts. Differentiation. 2018;103:1-4. PubMed PMID: 30262219.
  27. Baskin L, Shen J, Sinclair A, Cao M, Liu X, Liu G, et al. Development of the human penis and clitoris. Differentiation. 2018;103:74-85. PubMed PMID: 30249413.
  28. Sinclair AW, Glickman S, Catania K, Shinohara A, Baskin L, Cunha GR. Comparative Morphology of the Penis and Clitoris in Four Species of Moles (Talpidae). J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2017;328(3):275-94. PubMed PMID: 28251823.
  29. Sinclair AW, Cao M, Pask A, Baskin L, Cunha GR. Flutamide-induced hypospadias in rats: A critical assessment. Differentiation. 2017;94:37-57. PubMed PMID: 28043016.
  30. Robboy SJ, Kurita T, Baskin L, Cunha GR. New insights into human female reproductive tract development. Differentiation. 2017;97:9-22. PubMed PMID: 28918284.
  31. Isaacson D, Shen J, McCreedy D, Calvert M, Cunha G, Baskin L. Dichotomous Branching of Human Fetal Lung Demonstrated with Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;196(11):1476-7. PubMed PMID: 28933913.
  32. Cunha, G. R. Use of immune-deficient hosts to study human development and pathogenesis. Differentiation 98:A1-A3, 2017.
  33. Isaacson D, Shen J, Cao M, Sinclair A, Yue X, Cunha G, et al. Renal Subcapsular xenografing of human fetal external genital tissue - A new model for investigating urethral development. Differentiation. 2017;98:1-13. PubMed PMID: 29031189.
  34. Cunha GR, Kurita T, Cao M, Shen J, Robboy SJ, Baskin L. Response of xenografts of developing human female reproductive tracts to the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol. Differentiation. 2017;98:35-54. PubMed PMID: 29102757.
  35. Cunha GR, Kurita T, Cao M, Shen J, Robboy S, Baskin L. Molecular mechanisms of development of the human fetal female reproductive tract. Differentiation. 2017;97:54-72. PubMed PMID: 29053991.
  36. Baskin LS. Restoring normal anatomy in female patients with atypical genitalia. Semin Perinatol. 2017;41(4):227-31. PubMed PMID: 28535944.
  37. Baskin L. What Is Hypospadias? Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2017;56(5):409-18. PubMed PMID: 28081624.
  38. Sinclair AW, Glickman SE, Baskin L, Cunha GR. Anatomy of mole external genitalia: Setting the record straight. Anatomical record. 2016 Mar;299(3):385-99. PubMed PMID: 26694958. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4752857.
  39. Sinclair AW, Cao M, Shen J, Cooke P, Risbridger G, Baskin L, et al. Mouse hypospadias: A critical examination and definition. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2016 Apr 5. PubMed PMID: 27068029.
  40. Sinclair AW, Cao M, Baskin L, Cunha GR. Diethylstilbestrol-induced mouse hypospadias: "window of susceptibility". Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2016 Jan-Mar;91(1-3):1-18. PubMed PMID: 26810244. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4803596.
  41. Shen J, Overland M, Sinclair A, Cao M, Yue X, Cunha G, et al. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2016 Jul 5. PubMed PMID: 27397682.
  42. Overland M, Li Y, Cao M, Shen J, Yue X, Botta S, et al. Canalization of the Vestibular Plate in the Absence of Urethral Fusion Characterizes Development of the Human Clitoris: The Single Zipper Hypothesis. The Journal of urology. 2016 Apr;195(4 Pt 2):1275-83. PubMed PMID: 26926534.
  43. Mouriquand PD, Gorduza DB, Gay CL, Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Baker L, Baskin LS, et al. Surgery in disorders of sex development (DSD) with a gender issue: If (why), when, and how? Journal of pediatric urology. 2016 Jun;12(3):139-49. PubMed PMID: 27132944.
  44. Cunha GR, Baskin L. Mesenchymal-epithelial interaction techniques. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2016 Apr-Jun;91(4-5):20-7. PubMed PMID: 26610327. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4874915.
  45. Cunha GR, Baskin L. Use of sub-renal capsule transplantation in developmental biology. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2016 Apr-Jun;91(4-5):4-9. PubMed PMID: 26639079. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4884165.
  46. Cunha G, Overland M, Li Y, Cao M, Shen J, Sinclair A, et al. Methods for studying human organogenesis. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2016 Apr-Jun;91(4-5):10-4. PubMed PMID: 26585195. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4866906.
  47. Ricke, W.A., Williams, K., Palapattu, G., Wang, Y.Z., Cunha. G. R. Hormonal Carcinogenesis: The Role of Estrogens. In: The Molecular Basis of Human Cancer, Second Edition, WB Coleman and GJ Tsongalis, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 307-322, 2016.
  48. Ipulan, L. A., Raga, D., Suzuki, K., Murashima, A., Matsumaru, D., Cunha, G. R., Yamada, G. Investigation of sexual dimorphisms through mouse models and hormone/hormone-disruptor treatments. Differentiation. 2016; 91:78-77.
  49. Cunha, G. R. New and Old Techniques in Cell and Developmental Biology. Differentiation 91:1-3, 2016.
  50. Shen J, Liu B, Sinclair A, Cunha G, Baskin LS, Choudhry S. Expression Analysis of DGKK during External Genitalia Formation. The Journal of urology. 2015 Dec;194(6):1728-36. PubMed PMID: 26162297.
  51. Li Y, Sinclair A, Cao M, Shen J, Choudhry S, Botta S, et al. Canalization of the urethral plate precedes fusion of the urethral folds during male penile urethral development: the double zipper hypothesis. The Journal of urology. 2015 Apr;193(4):1353-59. PubMed PMID: 25286011. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4456085.
  52. Cunha GR, Sinclair A, Risbridger G, Hutson J, Baskin LS. Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models. Nature reviews Urology. 2015 May;12(5):271-80. PubMed PMID: 25850792.
  53. Choudhry S, Baskin LS, Lammer EJ, Witte JS, Dasgupta S, Ma C, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in ESR1 and ESR2 genes, and risk of hypospadias in a multiethnic study population. The Journal of urology. 2015 May;193(5):1625-31. PubMed PMID: 25463985.
  54.  Brock JW, 3rd, Carr MC, Adzick NS, Burrows PK, Thomas JC, Thom EA, et al. Bladder Function After Fetal Surgery for Myelomeningocele. Pediatrics. 2015 Oct;136(4):e906-13. PubMed PMID: 26416930. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4586733.
  55. Mahawong P, Sinclair A, Li Y, Schlomer B, Rodriguez E, Jr., Ferretti MM, et al. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol induces malformation of the external genitalia of male and female mice and persistent second-generation developmental abnormalities of the external genitalia in two mouse strains. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2014 Sep-Oct;88(2-3):51-69. PubMed PMID: 25449352. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4254634.
  56. Mahawong P, Sinclair A, Li Y, Schlomer B, Rodriguez E, Jr., Ferretti MM, et al. Comparative effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol on external genitalia development in adult males of two mouse strains with differential estrogen sensitivity. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2014 Sep-Oct;88(2-3):70-83. PubMed PMID: 25449353. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4254630.
  57. Hutson JM, Baskin LS, Risbridger G, Cunha GR. The power and perils of animal models with urogenital anomalies: handle with care. Journal of pediatric urology. 2014 Aug;10(4):699-705. PubMed PMID: 24768568. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4454504.
  58. Geller F, Feenstra B, Carstensen L, Pers TH, van Rooij IA, Korberg IB, et al. Genome-wide association analyses identify variants in developmental genes associated with hypospadias. Nature genetics. 2014 Sep;46(9):957-63. PubMed PMID: 25108383.
  59. Cunha GR, Risbridger G, Wang H, Place NJ, Grumbach M, Cunha TJ, et al. Development of the external genitalia: perspectives from the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2014 Jan-Feb;87(1-2):4-22. PubMed PMID: 24582573. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4069199.
  60.  Ching ST, Cunha GR, Baskin LS, Basson MA, Klein OD. Coordinated activity of Spry1 and Spry2 is required for normal development of the external genitalia. Developmental biology. 2014 Feb 1;386(1):1-11. PubMed PMID: 24361260. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3921686.
  61. Botta S, Cunha GR, Baskin LS. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias? Translational andrology and urology. 2014 Dec;3(4):330-9. PubMed PMID: 26816789. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4708138.
  62.  Schlomer BJ, Feretti M, Rodriguez E, Jr., Blaschko S, Cunha G, Baskin L. Sexual differentiation in the male and female mouse from days 0 to 21: a detailed and novel morphometric description. The Journal of urology. 2013 Oct;190(4 Suppl):1610-7. PubMed PMID: 23473905. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4104111.
  63. Carmichael SL, Mohammed N, Ma C, Iovannisci D, Choudhry S, Baskin LS, et al. Diacylglycerol kinase K variants impact hypospadias in a California study population. The Journal of urology. 2013 Jan;189(1):305-11. PubMed PMID: 23177175. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3973486.
  64. Blaschko SD, Mahawong P, Ferretti M, Cunha TJ, Sinclair A, Wang H, et al. Analysis of the effect of estrogen/androgen perturbation on penile development in transgenic and diethylstilbestrol-treated mice. Anatomical record. 2013 Jul;296(7):1127-41. PubMed PMID: 23653160. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3709018.
  65.  Baskin L. Quantitative measurement of the androgen receptor in prepuces of boys with and without hypospadias. BJU international. 2013 Jul;112(2):159-60. PubMed PMID: 23795783.
  66.  Weiss DA, Rodriguez E, Jr., Cunha T, Menshenina J, Barcellos D, Chan LY, et al. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 2012 May 6;354(1-2):94-102. PubMed PMID: 21893161. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3717118.
  67. Rodriguez E, Jr., Weiss DA, Ferretti M, Wang H, Menshenia J, Risbridger G, et al. Specific morphogenetic events in mouse external genitalia sex differentiation are responsive/dependent upon androgens and/or estrogens. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2012 Oct;84(3):269-79. PubMed PMID: 22925506. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3715656.
  68. Qiao L, Tasian GE, Zhang H, Cao M, Ferretti M, Cunha GR, et al. Androgen receptor is overexpressed in boys with severe hypospadias, and ZEB1 regulates androgen receptor expression in human foreskin cells. Pediatric research. 2012 Apr;71(4 Pt 1):393-8. PubMed PMID: 22391641. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3423458.
  69. Qiao L, Rodriguez E, Jr., Weiss DA, Ferretti M, Risbridger G, Cunha GR, et al. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta is decreased in hypospadias. The Journal of urology. 2012 Apr;187(4):1427-33. PubMed PMID: 22341273. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3428051.
  70. Hsieh MH, Eisenberg ML, Hittelman AB, Wilson JM, Tasian GE, Baskin LS. Caucasian male infants and boys with hypospadias exhibit reduced anogenital distance. Human reproduction. 2012 Jun;27(6):1577-80. PubMed PMID: 22434852. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3357195.
  71. Choudhry S, Deshpande A, Qiao L, Beckman K, Sen S, Baskin LS. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of CpG islands in hypospadias. The Journal of urology. 2012 Oct;188(4 Suppl):1450-5. PubMed PMID: 22906644. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3725975.
  72. Blaschko SD, Cunha GR, Baskin LS. Molecular mechanisms of external genitalia development. Differentiation; research in biological diversity. 2012 Oct;84(3):261-8. PubMed PMID: 22790208. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3443292. 
  73. van der Zanden LF, van Rooij IA, Feitz WF, Knight J, Donders AR, Renkema KY, et al. Common variants in DGKK are strongly associated with risk of hypospadias. Nature genetics. 2011 Jan;43(1):48-50. PubMed PMID: 21113153.
  74. Tasian GE, Copp HL, Baskin LS. Diagnostic imaging in cryptorchidism: utility, indications, and effectiveness. Journal of pediatric surgery. 2011 Dec;46(12):2406-13. PubMed PMID: 22152893. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3712862.
  75. Rodriguez E, Jr., Weiss DA, Yang JH, Menshenina J, Ferretti M, Cunha TJ, et al. New insights on the morphology of adult mouse penis. Biology of reproduction. 2011 Dec;85(6):1216-21. PubMed PMID: 21918128. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3223253.
  76. Qiao L, Tasian GE, Zhang H, Cunha GR, Baskin L. ZEB1 is estrogen responsive in vitro in human foreskin cells and is over expressed in penile skin in patients with severe hypospadias. The Journal of urology. 2011 May;185(5):1888-93. PubMed PMID: 21421232. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3428058.
  77.  Kalfa N, Philibert P, Baskin LS, Sultan C. Hypospadias: interactions between environment and genetics. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 2011 Mar 30;335(2):89-95. PubMed PMID: 21256920.
  78. Kalfa N, Cassorla F, Audran F, Oulad Abdennabi I, Philibert P, Beroud C, et al. Polymorphisms of MAMLD1 gene in hypospadias. Journal of pediatric urology. 2011 Dec;7(6):585-91. PubMed PMID: 22030455.
  79. Baskin L. Editorial comment. J Urol. 2011 Nov;186(5):2054-5. Epub 2011 Sep
  80. Rodriguez E Jr, Weiss DA, Yang JH, Menshenina J, Ferretti M, Cunha TJ, Barcellos D, Chan LY, Risbridger G, Cunha GR, Baskin LS. New Insights on the Morphology of Adult Mouse Penis. Biol Reprod. 2011 Sep 14. PMID:21918128
  81. Weiss DA, Rodriguez E Jr, Cunha T, Barcellos D, Chan LY, Risbridger G, Baskin L, Cunha G. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Aug 27. PMID: 21893161
  82. Qiao L, Tasian GE, Zhang H, Cunha GR, Baskin L. ZEB1 is estrogen responsive in vitro in human foreskin cells and is over expressed in penile skin in patients with severe hypospadias. J Urol. 2011 May;185(5):1888-93. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PMID: 21421232
  83. Liu, B, Feng, D, Lin, G, Cao. M, Kan. Y.W., Cunha G.R., Baskin, L.S., Signalling molecules involved in mouse bladder smooth muscle cellular differentiation. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54(1):175-80
  84. Cao, M., Tasian, G., Wang, M.H., Liu, B., Cunha, G., Baskin, L.S. Urothelium-derived Sonic hedgehog promotes mesenchymal proliferation and induces bladder smooth muscle differentiation. Differentiation. 2010 Apr-Jun;79(4-5):244-50. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
  85. Yiee, J.H., DiSandro, M., Wang, M,H,, Hittelman, A., Baskin, L.S. Does severity of renal scarring on DMSA scan predict abnormalities in creatinine clearance? Urology. 2010 Jul;76(1):204-8. Epub 2010 May 15.
  86. Yiee, J.H., Baskin, L.S. Environmental factors in genitourinary development. J Urol. 2010 Jul;184(1):34-41. Epub 2010 May15. Review. PMID:20478588 [PubMed-indexed for MEDLINE]
  87. Tasian, G., Cunha, G., Baskin, L.S. Smooth muscle differentiation and patterning in the urinary bladder. Differentiation. 2010 Jun 10.
  88. Kalfa, N., Sultan, C., Baskin, L.S. Hypospadias: etiology and current research. Urol Clin North Am. 2010 May;37(2):159-66. Review.
  89. Yiee, J.H., Baskin, L.S. Penile embryology and anatomy. ScientificWorldJournal. 2010 Jun 29;10:1174-9. Review.
  90. Tasian, G.E., Zaid, H., Cabana, M.D., Baskin, L.S. Proximal hypospadias and risk of acquired cryptorchidism. J Urol. 2010 Aug;184(2):715-20.
  91. Wilson, J.M., Arnhym, A., Champeau, A., Ebbers, M., Coakley, F., Baskin, L.S. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: An anatomic evaluation and sexual function questionnaire pilot study. J Pediatr Urol. 2010 Aug 16.
  92. Yang, J.H, Menshenina, J., Cunha, G.R., Place, N., Baskin, L.S. Morphology of Mouse External Genitalia: Implications for a Role of Estrogen in Sexual Dimorphism of the Mouse Genital Tubercle. J Urol. 2010 Aug 19.
  93. Speiser, P.W., Azziz, R., Baskin, L.S., Ghizzoni, L, Hensle, T.W., Merke, D.P., Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F., Miller, W.L., Montori, V.M., Oberfield, S.E., Ritzen, M., White, P.C. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Sep;95(9):4133-60.
  94. van der Zanden LF, van Rooij IA, Feitz WF, Knight J, Donders AR, Renkema KY, Bongers EM, Vermeulen SH, Kiemeney LA, Veltman JA, Arias-Vásquez A, Zhang X, Markljung E, Qiao L, Baskin LS, Nordenskjöld A, Roeleveld N, Franke B, Knoers NV. Common variants in DGKK are strongly associated with risk of hypospadias. Nat Genet. 2011 Jan;43(1):48-50. Epub 2010 Nov 28. PMID: 21113153
  95. Yang, J.H., Baskin, L.S., and Disandro, M. (2009) Gender Identity in Disorders of Sex Development: Review Article. Urology 75:153-159. Epub 2009 Nov 14
  96. Tasian, G.E., Hittelman, A.B., Kim, G.E., DiSandro, M.J., and Baskin, L.S. (2009) Age at orchiopexy and testis palpability predict germ and Leydig cell loss: clinical predictors of adverse histological features of cryptorchidism. J Urol 182:704-709.
  97. Ma, L.M., Wang, Z., Wang, H., Li, R.S., Zhou, J., Liu, B.C., and Baskin, L.S. (2009) Estrogen effects on fetal penile and urethral development in organotypic mouse genital tubercle culture. J Urol 182:2511-2517.
  98. Liu, B., Cunha, G.R., and Baskin, L.S. (2009a) Differential expression of microRNAs in mouse embryonic bladder. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 385:528
  99. Tasian, G.E., and Baskin, L.S. (2010) Re: Testicular dysfunction with maldescent--can urologists change this with earlier orchiopexy? T. T. Turner J Urol 2009; 182: 429-430. J Urol 183:830-831.
  100. Hsieh MH, Breyer BN, Eisenberg ML, Baskin LS. Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance, and endocrine disruption. Curr Urol Rep. 2008 Mar;9(2):137-42. Review. PMID: 18419998
  101. Wang MH, Baskin LS. Endocrine disruptors, genital development, and hypospadias. J Androl. 2008 Sep-Oct;29(5):499-505. Epub 2008 May 22. Review. PMID: 18497336
  102. Cao M, Liu B, Cunha G, Baskin L. Urothelium Patterns Bladder Smooth Muscle Location. Pediatr Res. 2008 Jun 4. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 18535485
  103. Kalfa N, Liu B, Ophir K, Audran F, Wang MH, Mei C, Sultan C, Baskin LS. Mutations of CXorf6 are associated with a range of severities of hypospadias. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Oct;159(4):453-8. Epub 2008 Jul 17. PMID: 18635673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].
  104. Kalfa N, Liu B, Cao M, Vilella M, Hsieh M, Baskin LS. 3-dimensional neuroanatomy of the human fetal pelvis: anatomical support for partial urogenital mobilization in the treatment of urogenital sinus. J Urol. 2008 Oct;180(4 Suppl):1709-14; discussion 1714-5. Epub 2008 Aug 16. PMID: 18708223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].
  105. Wilson JM, Aaronson DS, Schrader R, Baskin LS. Hydrocele in the pediatric patient: inguinal or scrotal approach? J Urol. 2008 Oct;180(4 Suppl):1724-7; discussion 1727-8. Epub 2008 Aug 21. PMID: 18721980
  106. Kalfa N, Liu B, Klein O, Wang MH, Cao M, Baskin LS.Genomic variants of ATF3 in patients with hypospadias. J Urol. 2008 Nov;180(5):2183-8; discussion 2188. Epub 2008 Sep 19.PMID: 18804813
  107. Breyer BN, Disandro M, Baskin LS, Hsieh MH. Obesity Does Not Decrease the Accuracy of Testicular Examination in Anesthetized Boys With Cryptorchidism. J Urol. 2008 Dec 16. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19095266
  108. Agras K, Willingham E, Shiroyanagi Y, Minasi P, Baskin LS. Estrogen receptor-alpha and beta are differentially distributed, expressed and activated in the fetal genital tubercle. J Urol 2007;177(6):2386-92.
  109. Liu B, Lin G, Willingham E, Ning H, Lin CS, Lue T, et al. Estradiol upregulates activating transcription factor 3, a candidate gene in the etiology of hypospadias. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2007:1.
  110. Shiroyanagi Y, Liu B, Cao M, Agras K, Li J, Hsieh MH, et al. Urothelial sonic hedgehog signaling plays an important role in bladder smooth muscle formation. Differentiation 2007.
  111. Wang Z, Liu BC, Lin GT, Lin CS, Lue TF, Willingham E, et al. Up-regulation of estrogen responsive genes in hypospadias: microarray analysis. J Urol 2007;177(5):1939-46.
  112. Willingham E, Baskin LS. Candidate genes and their response to environmental agents in the etiology of hypospadias. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2007;4(5):270-9.
  113. Yong W, Yang Z, Periyasamy S, Chen H, Yucel S, Li W, Lin LY, Wolf IM, Cohn MJ, Baskin LS, Sánchez ER, Shou W. Essential role for Co-chaperone Fkbp52 but not Fkbp51 in androgen receptor-mediated signaling and physiology. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 16;282(7):5026-36. Epub 2006 Dec 1.
  114. Agras K, Shiroyanagi Y, Baskin LS. Progesterone receptors in the developing genital tubercle: implications for the endocrine disruptor hypothesis as the etiology of hypospadias. J Urol. 2007 Aug;178(2):722-7. Epub 2007 Jun 15.
  115. Cavalcanti AG, Costa WS, Baskin LS, McAninch JA, Sampaio FJ. A morphometric analysis of bulbar urethral strictures. BJU Int. 2007 Aug;100(2):397-402.
  116. Hsieh MH, Grantham EC, Liu B, Macapagal R, Willingham E, Baskin LS. In utero exposure to benzophenone-2 causes hypospadias through an estrogen receptor dependent mechanism. J Urol. 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 2):1637-42. Epub 2007 Aug 16.
  117. Vilela ML, Willingham E, Buckley J, Liu BC, Agras K, Shiroyanagi Y, Baskin LS. Endocrine disruptors and hypospadias: role of genistein and the fungicide vinclozolin. Urology. 2007 Sep;70(3):618-21.
  118. Baskin LS. Can we prevent hypospadias? J Pediatr Urol. 2007 Dec;3(6):420-5. Epub 2007 Oct 24. PMID: 18947788 [PubMed - in process].
  119. Li J, Willingham E, Baskin LS. Gene expression profiles in mouse urethral development. BJU Int. 2006 Oct;98(4):880-5
  120. Agras K, Willingham E, Liu B, Baskin LS. Ontogeny of androgen receptor and disruption of its mRNA expression by exogenous estrogens during morphogenesis of the genital tubercle. J Urol. 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 2):1883-8.
  121. Blaschko SD, Willingham EJ, Baskin LS. Embryonic exposure to low-dose 17beta-estradiol decreases fetal mass sex specifically in male mice and does not cause hypospadias. J Investig Med 2006;54(8):490-5.
  122. Baskin LS, and Ebbers MB: Hypospadias: anatomy, etiology, and technique. J Pediatr Surg. 41(3):463-72, Mar 2006.
  123. Baskin LS, Yucel S, Cunha GR, Glickman SE, Place NJ. A neuroanatomical comparison of humans and spotted hyena, a natural animal model for common urogenital sinus: clinical reflections on feminizing genitoplasty. The Journal of Urology, 175(1):276-83, Jan 2006.
  124. Buckley J, Willingham E, Agras K, Baskin LS. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice. Environ Health. 5:4, Feb 21, 2006.
  125. Krishnan A, de Souza A, Konijeti R, Baskin LS. The anatomy and embryology of posterior urethral valves. The Journal of Urology, 175(4):1214-20, Apr 2006.
  126. Liu B, Agras K, Willingham E, Vilela ML, Baskin LS. Activating transcription factor 3 is estrogen-responsive in utero and upregulated during sexual differentiation. Horm Res, 65(5):217-22, 2006.
  127. Li J, Shiroyanagi Y, Lin G, Haqq C, Lin CS, Lue TF, Willingham E, Baskin LS: Serum response factor, its cofactors, and epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in urinary bladder smooth muscle formation. Differentiation, The Journal of Urology, 74(1):30-9, Feb 2006.
  128. Willingham E, Agras K, Vilela M, Baskin LS. Loratadine exerts estrogen-like effects and disrupts penile development in the mouse. The Journal of Urology, 175(2):723-6, Feb 2006.
  129. Willingham E, Agras K, de Souza AE Jr, Konijeti R, Yucel S, Rickie W, Cunha GR, Baskin LS. Steroid receptors and mammalian penile development: an unexpected role for progesterone receptor? The Journal of Urology, 176(2):728-33, Aug 2006.
  130. Baskin LS, and Kogan BA, eds: Handbook of Pediatric Urology. 2nd ed. Lipincoot-Raven: Philadelphia, 2005.
  131. Cunha GR, Place NJ, et al: The ontogeny of the urogenital system of the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta erxleben). Biol Reprod 73(3): 554-64, 2005.
  132. Cunha, GR, Place NJ, Baskin L, Conley A, Weldele M, Cunha TJ, Wang YZ, Cao M and Glickman SE: The ontogeny of the urogenital system of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben). Biol Reprod, 73(3): p. 554-64, 2005.
  133. Krishnan A, and Baskin LS: Identification of ectopic ureter in incontinent girl using magnetic resonance imaging. Urology, 65(5): p. 1002, 2005.
  134. Liu B, Wang Z, et al: Activating transcription factor 3 is up-regulated in patients with hypospadias. Pediatr Res, 58(6): 1280-3, 2005.
  135. Baskin LS: Anatomical studies of the female genitalia: surgical reconstructive implications. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 17(4): 581-7, 2004.
  136. Baskin LS: Hypospadias. Adv Exp Med Biol, 545: 3-22, 2004.
  137. Cunha GR, and Baskin L: Development of the penile urethra. Adv Exp Med Biol, 545: 87-102, 2004.
  138. Holmes NM, Miller WL, et al: Lack of defects in androgen production in children with hypospadias. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89(6): 2811-6, 2004.
  139. Kim KS, Torres Jr. CR, et al: Induction of hypospadias in a murine model by maternal exposure to synthetic estrogens. Environ Res, 94(3): 267-75, 2004.
  140. Mingin GC, Nguyen HT, et al: Abnormal dimercapto-succinic acid scans predict an increased risk of breakthrough infection in children with vesicoureteral reflux. The Journal of Urology, 172(3): 1075-7; discussion 1077, 2004.
  141. Mingin GC, Hinds A, et al: Children with a febrile urinary tract infection and a negative radiologic workup: factors predictive of recurrence. Urology, 63(3): 562-5; discussion 565, 2004.
  142. Yucel S, Liu W, et al: Anatomical studies of the fibroblast growth factor-10 mutant, sonic hedge hog mutant and androgen receptor mutant mouse genital tubercle. Adv Exp Med Biol, 545: 123-48, 2004.
  143. Yucel S, Desouza A, et al: In utero prednisone exposure affects genital development. The Journal of Urology, 172(4 Pt 2): 1725-30; discussion 1730, 2004.
  144. Yucel S, and Baskin LS: An anatomical description of the male and female urethral sphincter complex. The Journal of Urology, 171(5): 1890-7, 2004.
  145. Cunha GR, Wang Y, Baskin LS, Glickman S: Urogenital system of the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta erxleben): a functional histological study. J Morphol, 256(2): 205-18, 2003.
  146. Master VA, Cunha GR, Baskin LS: Urothlelium facilitates the recruitment and trans-differentiation of fibroblasts into smooth muscle in acellular matrix. The Journal of Urology, 170(4 Pt 2): 1628-32, 2003.
  147. Yamada G, Satoh Y, Baskin LS, Cunha GR: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of development of the external genitalia. Differentiation, 71(8): 445-60, 2003.
  148. Yucel S, and Baskin LS: Identification of communicating branches among the dorsal, perineal and cavernous nerves of the penis. The Journal of Urology, 170(1): 153-8, 2003.
  149. Yucel S, Cavalcanti AG, Baskin LS: The effect of oestrogen and testosterone on the urethral seam of the developing male mouse genital tubercle. British Journal of Urology International, 92(9): 1016-21, 2003.
  150. Yucel S, Cavalcanti AG, Baskin LS: The impact of prenatal androgens on vaginal and urogenital sinus development in the female mouse. The Journal of Urology, 170(4 Pt 1): 1432-6, 2003.
  151. Baskin LS: Anatomical studies of the fetal genitalia: surgical reconstructive implications. Adv Exp Med Biol, 511: 239-49, 2002.
  152. Kim KS, Liu W, Cunha G, Russell DW, Huanh H, Shaprio E, and Baskin LS: Expression of the androgen receptor and 5?-reductase type 2 in the developing human fetal penis and urethra. Cell Tissue Research, 307(2): 145-53, 2002.
  153. Mingin GC, Mathias R, Baskin LS: Growth and metabolic consequences of bladder augmentation in children with myelomeningocele and bladder exstrophy. Pediatrics, 110(6): 1193-8, 2002.
  154. Akman Y, Liu W-H, Lee Y-W and Baskin LS: Penile anatomy under the pubic arch: constructive implications. The Journal of Urology, 166:225-230, 2001.
  155. Baskin LS, Himes K, and Colburn, T: Hypospadias and endocrine disruption: Is there a connection? Environmental Health Perspectives: vol 109 #111, 1175-1183, Nov 2001.
  156. Baskin LS, Erol A, Jegatheeson P, Lee Y-W, Liu W-H, Cunha JR: Urethral seam formation in hypospadias. Cell Tissue and research, 305:379-387, 2001.
  157. Baskin LS: Hypospadias: a critical analysis of cosmetic outcomes using photography. British Journal of Urology International, 87 534-537, 2001.
  158. Holmes N, Harrison M, and Baskin LS: Fetal surgery for posterior urethral valves, long-term outcomes. Pediatrics. 107-7 Urol, www Pediatrics. Org/cgi/content/fall/107/7/7e7, 2001.
  159. Baskin LS: Hypospadias and urethral development. Journal of Urology, 163(3):951-6, Mar 2000.
  160. Baskin LS, Erol A, Li YW, and Liu WH: Anatomy of the neurovascular bundle: Is safe mobilization possible? Journal of Urology, Pediatric Supplement, 164: 977-980, 2000.
  161. Erol A, Baskin LS, Li YW, and Liu WH: Anatomical studies of the urethral plate: why preservation of the urethral plate is important in hypospadias repair. British Journal of Urology International. 85, 728-734, 2000.
  162. Kurzrock E, Jegathanson P, and Baskin LS: Urethral development in the fetal rabbit and induction of hypospadias. Journal of Urology, 164:1786-1794, 2000.
  163. Li YW, Liu W, Hayward S, Cunha G, and Baskin LS: Plasticity of the urothelial phenotype: effects of gastro-intestinal mesenchyme/stroma and implications for urinary tract reconstruction. Differentiation, 66; 126-135, 2000.
  164. Liu W, Li YW, Hayward S, Cunha GR, and Baskin LS: Diffusable growth factors induce bladder smooth muscle differentiation In vitro cellular and developmental biology. 36:476-484, 2000.
  165. Baskin LS, Erol A, Li YW, Liu WH, Kurzrock E, and Cunha GR: Anatomical studies of the human clitoris. Journal of Urology, 162, 1015-1020, 1999.
  166. Kurzrock EA, Baskin LS, and Cunha GR: Ontogeny of the male urethra: Theory of endodermal differentiation. Differentiation, 64:115-122, 1999.
  167. Kurzock E, Baskin L, and Cunha GR: Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development of the mouse fetal genital tubercle. Cells Tissue Organs, 164: 125-130, 1999.
  168. Baskin LS, Erol A, Liu YW, and Cunha G: Anatomical studies of hypospadias. Journal of Urology, 160.1108, 1998.
  169. DiSandro MJ, Baskin LS, Li YW, Hayward S, and Cunha GR: Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in bladder smooth muscle development: Epithelial specificity. Journal of Urology, 160:1040-1046, 1998.

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We have assembled some of the brightest minds in pediatric science to help explore leading questions and bridge the gap between bench and bedside.  From postdoctoral scholars to senior scientists, our group is passionate about leading the way.